Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Fatalistic Attitude Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Fatalistic Attitude - Essay Example Following September 11, American perceptions of people from Middle Eastern countries underwent a dramatic shift. Many citizens propelled by popular media and cultural and religious misunderstanding have demonized Arab-Americans, making it more difficult for them to function happily and safely within our society. The more narrow-minded have gone so far as to blame any person of hailing from this basic region of the world as anti-Christian, American-hating zealots who only come to the U.S. to undermine our freedoms and safety. While this is obviously not the case, as a result Arab-Americans, particularly those who actively practice the Muslim faith, are marginalized or sometimes outright despised by their fellow citizens. While this it is entirely inaccurate to blame all Arabs for the events of the past decade, many people from this cultural/ethnic background simply attempt to keep their heads down and wait for public sentiment to change. They do not believe that any amount of campaigning for cultural understanding or open exchange of ideas will affect a true change in their status within American society. Though over time it is likely that these prejudicial and inaccurate perceptions will no longer be equated with Arab-Americans as an absolute negative, it is the way in which fellow citizens interact with this subgroup on a daily basis which will most effectively alter the current attitudes and ideas existent in our culture. In addition to this, media coverage should be limited to factual relation without emphasis on ethnicity and instead promote cultural understanding which would also be an important factor in changing the overall perceptions of Arab-Americans in our society

Monday, October 28, 2019

Osi Model Explained Essay Example for Free

Osi Model Explained Essay This paper discusses the Open System Interconnection reference model (OSI model) and the organization and function of its 7 layers. The OSI model is the most commonly referenced networking communication model, but it is rarely implemented in its entirety Ciccarelli et al. (2008). The OSI model provides a common frame of reference for discussing various hardware and software issues (Ciccarelli et al., 2008). The layers are the: Application, Presentation, Session, Transport, Network, Data Link and Physical (Ciccarelli et al., 2008). When data is sent, the user application sends data down through the layers of the model, which are self contained and have specific functions. Each layer adds information to the data pertaining to the layer’s control. The OSI model was created in 1984 by the International Standards Organization (ISO) in response to the need for a set of standards to allow computers to communicate through a network according to Ciccarelli et al. (2008). Additional rationales for the OSI model are given and most significant among them is that it was designed to overcome interoperability issues with networking products from disparate vendors (Ciccarelli et al., 2008; Davis, 2008). Other reasons given for creating the OSI model include: †¢ to clarify general functions of internetworking (Rivard Roherty, 2008) †¢ to divide the complexity of networking into smaller more manageable bites (Rivard Roherty, 2008) †¢ to simplify troubleshooting (Ciccarelli et al., 2008) †¢ to allow developers to change and improve components of a networking stack without altering the function of other layers (and the need to re-write them) (Rivard Roherty, 2008) A key to the understanding the OSI model is the idea of data passing down through the OSI model layers in one computer, then across a network media and then up through the OSI model layers in a second computer (Hill, 2002). As data flows down through the OSI model layers, each layer that has an applicable protocol, labels the data packet with a header and a trailer specific to the layer this is known as encapsulation (Hill, 2002). On the recipient computer, the data header and trailer is removed after its values are utilized (or de-encapsulated) as the data packet travels up the corresponding layer of the OSI model (Ciccarelli et al., 2008; Hill, 2002). Each layer prepares the data for the adjacent layer before it is forwarded by adding header and trailer data to the data. Layer responsibilities and definitions: (7) Application: User programs communicate with API’s in the application layer which allows user programs to contain very little networking code themselves (Hill, 2002). The application layer provides access to the network protocol stack. DNS operates at the application layer. Other important examples of protocols operating at this layer are: http, POP3 (email protocol), SMTP (email transport protocol), IMAP (internet message access protocol), FTP and Telnet – includes network printing and database services. Layer devices include: hosts, servers, PC’s and laptops, cellular phones [pic](Ciccarelli et al., 2008; Hill, 2002; Messer, 2010). (6) Presentation: This layer ensures that format of data input from the application layer is in a form suitable for transport over the network, and that it can be interpreted by the receiving node. Translates character sets such as ASCII, EBCDIC and Unicode for compatibility with remote nodes. This layer compresses and encrypts da ta as needed [pic](Ciccarelli et al., 2008; doogie966, 2011; Hill, 2002; Messer, 2010). (5) Session: Sets up, maintains and breaks-down connections between network endpoint applications; negotiates whether transmission will be simplex, half-duplex, or full duplex. Simplex is similar to a broadcast in that it is one way; half-duplex is two way transmission, but only one direction at a time; full duplex is two-way communication at the same time using different channels to manage send and receive traffic [pic](Ciccarelli et al., 2008; Hill, 2002; Messer, 2010; Rivard Roherty, 2008). Remote procedure calls originate from the session layer (doogie966, 2011). (4) Transport: Provides reliable transport using connection-oriented services (transmission control protocol -TCP) and connection-less oriented services (user datagram protocol, or UDP). Important functions provided by this layer are flow control, error detection and error recovery. Flow control starts before data is actually sent. The transmitting node sends the receiving node a message indicating that it is about to t ransmit data to the receiving node. The receiving node acknowledges the receipt of the notice from the sender – then data is transmitted. Flow control utilizes TCP protocol to ensure delivery of data. TCP is associated with connection-oriented service where communication is assured. Flow control also manages data transmission speed through a windowing process. A TCP window is that specific amount of data that can be sent before an acknowledgement is required by the receiving node. This prevents the receiving device from being overwhelmed by data volume that is can’t process fast enough. Connection-less transmissions (UDP) offers no error detection or recovery mechanism and is faster without the overhead of recovery requirements [pic](Ciccarelli et al., 2008; Hill, 2002; Messer, 2010; Rivard Roherty, 2008). (3) Network: Responsible logical addressing using IP protocol, or path determination (routing) and packet (datagrams) delivery [pic](Ciccarelli et al., 2008; Hill, 2002; Messer, 2010; Rivard Roherty, 2008). When traffic arrives at the network layer, header/trailer information is added or taken away that includes the logical addressing data or IP. IP addressing allows a router to route packets to remote nodes IP. There are two ways routing can be processed one is source routing. In source routing, IP data for every router on the path to the destination is included in the data packet. The routing method calls for the source and destination IP information to be contained within the packet. Once on the network, routers use the source and destination addresses to forward the packet to the next router, or hop, on the path to the destination (Ciccarelli et al., 2008). (2) Data Link: Consists of Logical Link Control Layer and the Media Access Control Layer: MAC layer Responsible for physical addressing or for getting traffic onto the network using the MAC protocol, this layer is responsible for NIC (L1L2) control. Switches and bridges operate at this layer, since they are using the MAC physical address of the sender/receiver devices to determine which port on a switch to use, or whether to let traffic pass (bridge). Switches also operate at layers 3 and 4 [pic](Ciccarelli et al., 2008; Hill, 2002; Messer, 2010). Media access control (MAC Address) addressing is managed and added/removed from traffic at this layer. Logical addresses (IP) are not considered at this layer. LLC sublayer bridges the MAC sublayer to the upper layer protocols. 1) Physical Responsible for physical devices such as NIC’s(L1 2), cabling, fiber, coax, wireless, hubs, connectors (e.g. RJ-45, BNC and for implementing standards for physical configuration of connectors such as TIA/ETA (RJ-45). Also, the physical layer manages signaling and voltages required to transmit data [pic](Ciccarelli et al., 2008; Hill, 2002; Martin, Not Given; Messer, 2010). References Ciccarelli, P., Faulkner, C., FitzGerald, J., Dennis, A., Groth, D., Skandier, T., Miller, F. (2008). Networking Basics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley Sons, Inc. Davis, D. (2008). Cisco Administration 101: Understand the OSI model to become a better Cisco troubleshooter. Retrieved 2/13/2013, 2013, from doogie966. (2011). OSI protocols and devices. from Hill, B. (2002). Cisco: The Complete Reference: McGraw-Hill/Osborne Media. Martin, U. o. T. a. (Not Given). EIA/TIA 568A 568B Standard. Retrieved February 16, 2013, from Messer, J. (2010). The OSI Model CompTIA Network+ N10-004: 4.1. Retrieved February 14, 2013, from Rivard, E., Roherty, J. (2008). CCNA Flash Cards Practice Pack (Third ed.): Cisco Systems, Inc.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Mark Twains The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn †Controversial :: Adventures Huckleberry Huck Finn Essays

Huckleberry Finn – Controversial It seems like a never-ending question. When will we ever let it rest? You know the question I'm talking about; should the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn be banned from American Literature courses? It's been argued from so many different standpoints, but it has never been settled. Is Huckleberry Finn really a controversial book? No, I do not agree with the banning of Huckleberry Finn. This book is considered to be a classic. It explores the depths of our past in many different ways. Those who think the book to be controversial probably have never ever read it before. Most likely, they're basing their judgments on the excessively used word, "nigger." For those who have read the book and still feel necessary to ban it are obviously missing the key points of this American classic. If you understand Huckleberry Finn, then you'll realize it's not about slavery or racism. It's about being unprejudiced. In the book, Huck admits that Jim "had an uncommon level head for a nigger." If you were to take out the black and white scenario, you would see that this quote is clearly nothing but acceptance. Huck is accepting Jim, regardless of his ethnic background. If you looked deeper, you would also see, the book is about nothing less than freedom and the quest for freedom. It's about a slave who breaks the law and risks his life to win his freedom and be reunited with his family. He was lucky enough to have a friend who made him his best friend and helped him to escape. Truly this isn't controversial; it's real life. Another controversial aspect of the book would be the use of the word "nigger" and its being in the book over 200 times creates constant scrutiny. I feel the word was not used to be racist and its usage in the book gives great representation of the way life was during the pre-civil war era. People need to grasp the concept that that's how black were treated then. In today's society, we would find quotes such as, "Good gracious! Was anybody hurt?" "No'm. Just a nigger," APPALING! But in fact, it was written in an earlier time setting when quotes like that were okay to say.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Disorder of Society in Twelfth Night

Your lord does know my mind; I cannot love him; Yet I suppose him virtuous, know him noble, of great estate, of fresh and stainless youth; in voices well divulged, free, learned, and valiant; and in dimension and the shape of nature a gracious person; but yet I cannot love him (Greenbelts, 1. 5. 234-239). † Olivia defies the classic role of women- marriage. A marriage to the count would be most prosperous to her, as she will have the higher status and respect of being a married woman. He is a man most women would love to belong to, and yet, she continually refuses his attempts to win her over.She is a literary foil, In many respects, for the queen, who also refused claims of love and adoration. Olav did not want to be ruled. After the death of her male relations, she found a new sort of freedom In the realization that she could make It on her own. Her social rank allowed her the chance to remain single and maintain a high standard of living. However, her position was not one th at all women could claim for themselves. Single women of the time were the ones who were â€Å"singled† out as witches, and held as suspicious in the event of strange occurrences.Acts of desperation ensue in the maintenance of independence in a world dominated by men. In an attempt to gain the love of Cesarean, who is in reality Viola, Olivia says to him, â€Å"By maidenhood, honor, truth, and everything, I love thee so, that, meager all thy pride, not wit nor reason can my passion hide (3. 1 . 147-149). † She has overstepped the boundaries of being a demure, quietly submissive woman, as she charges forward In her passions. She has thrown all caution to the wind as she sets out to woo the â€Å"man† herself.The role of wooing, traditionally a man's Job, was upset by the forcefulness of this woman. In mom ways she could be considered an early feminist, as she strove to maintain her independence and identity apart from male dominance. She no longer cares what anyo ne may think of her rash display of passions, as she fulfills the typically male stereotypes. Olivia wanted Cesarean because he was, as Viola had put it, her â€Å"servant. † Cesarean was not above her in any way. Olivia saw he was different, as he didn't pine after her for her beauty, as others did.He was young and entertaining to her way of life, and desire for freedom. Fear can cause one to question his personal decisions. When faced with the supposed wrath of Sir Andrew, and his sword, Viola said, â€Å"l shall be much bound to you fort; I am one that had rather go with sir priest than sir knight; I care not who knows so much of my mettle (3. 4. 247-249). † Viola upended her role as a man by giving up the idea of valor and courage. She showed weakness In her society, where men are praised for courage and strength, all marks of manliness.In her desire for peace rather than turmoil and triumph, she adheres to her being one or the other, but wavers in her ways. She do es not feel a need to prove herself in any way that would needlessly place her in the face of danger. In taking on the role of a man, she has failed in respect of living up to the stereotypical male standard of courage. She would rather have revealed herself for who she really was in order to retain her life. And yet, she was not completely devoid of courage, as she was willing to face the uncertainties that could be in the event that she confessed.Cross-dressing in Elizabethan society was taboo. King Henry VIII had established a law that people were to dress within their rank, as in his mind it was the clothes that made the man, which, in Viola's case, the clothes did make the â€Å"man. The act of a woman dressing as a man caused people to question her character. She was often considered to be a prostitute, and when discovered, the sin was punishable with whipping, before she would be locked away in a hospital where she would be forced into hard labor. Even with this thought in m ind, Viola's desire to undergo the change and take on a manly fade won out. O that I served that lady, and might not be delivered to the world till I had made mine own occasion mellow, what my estate is (1. 2. 40-43)! † With her male relations presumably dead, she, as a lower ranking Oman than the Lady Olivia, knew that women had no place in society, and no ability to inherit anything. She was, by law, left destitute. She admired Olive's ability to remain single, even in accepting the ridicule of an intolerant society. Viola represents in many ways, the women followers who worshipped the queen's ability and desire to withstand the pressures of society.Accepted societal norms can lead to intolerance toward new ideas. â€Å"O, she that hath a heart of that fine frame to pay this debt of love but to a brother, how will she love, when the rich golden shaft hath killed the flock of al affections else that live in her; when liver, brain, and heart, these sovereign thrones, are all supplied, and filled her sweet perfections, with one self king (1. 1. 33-39)! † Olivia is considered noble to give up a supposed desire to marry out of love for her deceased brother. These thoughts toward her devotion are in stark contrast to the thoughts toward Elizabeth l.Because Elizabethan passion was to lead her country to peace and maintain the power, she was considered grotesque, as any woman who wielded power would have been. Had Olivia expressed an inclination award power rather than grief, she would likely have been received in a similar manner. Yet because she attributed her desire for singleness to the womanly traits of devotion and love, and in the same manner, grief, she was considered the epitome of womanly graces. Her true desire was, however, to maintain a sense of self beyond the dependence on a lording male figure.Shakespeare seems to be praising Elizabethan desire for chastity in the same way that the count praises Olive's love, as everything she felt was b rought under the power of a single passion. Extremist attitudes attempt to permeate the high social ranks in order to gain ground. Maillot portrays the classic image of a Puritan. As Olive's servant, he dreams of greatness, and wants nothing else than to marry his mistress. The notion is in itself absurd, as there are societal norms that would prevent such an unfortunate marriage.Although social mobility was beginning to take place, there was still a division among the classes. It would have been quite out of place for a woman of Olive's status to marry one so far beneath her. Yet, imagining how it would be between him and her uncle, Sir Toby thus, quenching my familiar smile with an austere regard of control You must amend your drunkenness (2. 5. 9-60, 66). † The puritan church was considered quite prudish by many. Its legalism and disregard for all things not solemn caused such things as the closing of the theaters in London in 1596.Maillot's desire to gain the admiration of Olivia correlates to the desire by the Puritan leaders to gain the admiration of the nobility. In this way they hoped to gain control and wield their influence over society, including the aristocracy. For if it was on an equal level within the hierarchy, it could not be so easily disregarded as the Catholic Church had been at times, such as when Henry VIII proclaimed himself head of the church. The upset in the social hierarchy led to Million being deemed insane for thinking that he could reach these ends.The supposed order of hierarchy can be upset through logic. Mourning the death of her brother, Olivia finds herself in a mental headlock with Fest the Fool. â€Å"Take the fool away†¦ Do not hear, fellows? Take away the lady (1 Fest has challenged the respected status of the aristocracy, by turning the tables and claiming Olivia is the fool. In this way he has placed himself above her, taking on the role of wisdom that was reserved for the educated church and nobility. He ha s essentially placed her at the bottom of the hierarchy, as a commoner unable to reason for herself.This upheaval to the order of societal norms takes place in a caravansaries pageant. Caravansaries behavior usually ensued before an ordained church holiday from a desire to break out of the cloister of decency expected in daily living and therefore breach the social barriers. Mockery of religion and the nobility took place through costume, lewdness, and focus on the negative aspects of human behavior. Such behavior was protected under the realm of carnival, Just as the fool's behavior, at times disrespectful, was deemed appropriate under the safety of his title.This attack on Olive's wisdom proves to be truer than when it was first made, as she meets and falls for a woman, thinking her to be a man, and thus completing the idea that she is a fool. Titles are futile unless they are backed by the support of an equal mind. Not understanding the meaning of Sir Taboo's words, Sir Andrew ig norantly says, â€Å"Nay, by my troth, I know not; but I know, to be up late is to be up late (3. 2. 4-5). † Andrew is an unlikely knight. He acquired the title, and yet, he does not live p to it in the traditional sense of knighthood, nor does he abide by any codes.He himself said that he dislikes policy (3. 2. 27). A knight, as part of the aristocracy, was groomed and educated to high standards, expected to fulfill his destiny in the circles of nobility. Andrew bears no marks of fine-breeding, groveling in the shadow of Sir Toby Belch, a poor specimen to hold as nobility. The notion of entropy plays into this tale of a society dominated by age old ideals, yet attacked by passions, brains, and whims. The idea claims that a closed system left to itself will become more chaotic as time passes.Interestingly enough, Shakespearean setting of Lariat is, in itself, a closed system, cut off from reality by the sea, and further isolated from life by the fact that it was a fictitious place. Viola's deception was but a single act, caused by the disorder and unbalance of the sea, and in effect, the unfairness of life. It leads to more confusion as the story unfolds, until a body finally steps in and puts a stop to it. The chaos and disorder of accepted norms and modes of life creates a dysfunctional world where nothing is as it seems. Things thought to be good in lose their value and Belch for example.By doing this Shakespeare was making a statement that the high- born are, in reality, not so different from anyone else. They have the same tendencies, minds, and underneath the titles and finery, is essentially, the same man. Order is but a fade for Shakespeare, who had seen it upturned in a second through the Reformation, disease, wars, hunger, and difficulties of life. He had seen both parts of life, the low classes, and also experienced the life of a gentleman. He could relate to various aspects of life, which was in itself an effect of disorder, as the Elizabeth an ideal was to maintain a static class structure and avoid social mobility.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Partnership in Children and Youngsters

Task A Why is it important for children and young people that you work in partnership with the following people/groups? Parent's, careers, guardians This partnership is very Important because parent's or careers need to trust the nursery and staff that work there. They will expect the best quality of care for their child. Partnering well with the parent or career of the child will increase good communication Including sharing Important information regarding the child needs, wants and development .Building trust with parent's or careers will result in them knowing that the nursery Is a very good place for their child as It offers a great amount of help and support, which is especially important for new parent's or careers. Other professionals It is also important to partner with other professionals as they will offer the support and services, where needed, to improve the overall development of the child. For example, a speech and language therapist may assist a child with communicatio n difficulties. Another example would be a play therapist to diagnose, prevent or resolve a child with psychosocial challenges.Multi disciplinary teams It Is very important that everyone in a multi disciplinary team work in partnership. For the best results, all information must be available. This enables different disciplines to share their skills resulting in more effective support and outcomes for the child. Colleagues Working closely with colleagues and sharing information, such as observations, can add to a greater understanding of the child and their development. Working as a partnership helps to provide a good level of care. It also helps develop the skills across the staff team, as well as providing more effective learning & play environment.Identify from within your chosen work setting three relevant partners for communication and information sharing. Social Services OFFSET Speech and Language Therapist What three characteristics define an effective working partnership? Sup portive – tofu contact and understand. Trustworthy – Will not break confidentiality and is reliable. List three examples of potential barriers to effective partnership working. Breach of confidentiality The practitioner may mistakenly share the information with other people who are not related to the case which may cause inconvenience and distrust to the people involved.Inaccurate policies and procedures The policies may not be clear enough for the practitioner to understand and follow and may be wrong written or not up to date which may cause the practitioner to make a mistake. Lack of effective leadership The manager does not support staff and does not provide regular staff training. Task B Give two reasons why clear and effective information between partners is important. If unclear information given between partners, important details could be misheard causing the partners to make mistakes in their practice leading to disruption, health and safety risks etc.It is a lso important to pass clear and effective information between partners as it boosts the professionalism in the practice. Identify one policy and one procedure from children or young person's work setting for sharing information. The staff will never discuss a child with another parent or career. All members of staff are bound by confidentiality, however, it must be understood that if at any time the interest of a child is considered to be â€Å"at risk† then the nursery must break this confidentiality and take appropriate action. In the event information with staff on a â€Å"need to know' basis.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

The Harlem Renaissance and African American Identity Professor Ramos Blog

The Harlem Renaissance and African American Identity The Harlem Renaissance and African American Identity The Harlem Renaissance of the 1920’s was a pivotal era for African Americans. This was an era where African Americans produced a mass amount of literature, art, and music that represented and celebrated African American culture. The Harlem Renaissance also embarked â€Å"racial pride, and artistic expression† which â€Å"set a foundation for future activism† (Standish 40). This was the first time since the end of the Civil War where African American’s began to become more aggressive about fighting against the oppression and racism they faced as well as embracing their self-confidence. Although the Harlem Renaissance was set in Harlem, New York, there was an outbreak throughout different areas that celebrated blacks and spoke out against racism such as the Negritude movement for the French speaking blacks and also a movement in the British West Indies (Harden 8). Despite the various movements happening in different areas, the Harlem Renaissance was the most prominent and influential. Several social situations influenced the beginning of the Harlem Renaissance such as the Great Migration, Jim Crow laws, and frequent lynching’s. The Great Migration was a time when a large amount of African Americans traveled from the south to the north in hopes of leaving behind the â€Å"mean brutality of southern racial bigotry† (Harden 8). This was the time after the Civil War where brutal racism and oppression rose greatly. The spark of chain of events that led to the Great Migration included the creation of Jim Crow laws, which essentially were created in order to suppress blacks from their rights and freedom. Furthermore, the amounts of lynching’s increasingly grew, with there being â€Å"more than four thousand reported lynching’s occur[ing] between 1877 and 1950† (Standish 41). All these factors pushed toward the Great Migration that eventually began the Harlem Renaissance. There was a great amount of people who were very well known during the Harlem Renaissance but Langton Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston are two of the most prominent writers of the time. Langston Hughes poem Theme for English B and Zora Neale Hurston’s essay How it Feels to Be Colored Me efficiently portray the American life, specifically for African Americans, by conveying their acknowledgement of being colored in areas that were predominantly white, being aware of the racial differences but also, expressing how despite these differences, they are American. Langston Hughes is one of the most prominent writers of the Harlem Renaissance. He was recognized for depicting â€Å"African American pride† and portraying the â€Å"newly inspired, unapologetic voice of black America† (Standish 41). Hughes is greatly known for helping establish the newly found African American identity by opening up about personal experiences in his writing. In his poem Theme for English B, Hughes describes an assignment his professor assigned of writing a page that represents them. He begins the poem by stating â€Å"I am twenty-two, colored, born in Winston-Salem† (Hughes 1043). Hughes identifies that he is a young African American male in order to provide context to understand the contrasts he presents later on. He later states how he is â€Å"the only colored student in [his]class† (1043). Hughes points out that he is colored but emphasizes how he is the only person of color in his class to demonstrate the lack of diversity not only in in his school during that time but also the social segregation that was happening around them. Hughes attended school in a predominantly white area, therefore, being the only colored student in his class made him stick out a lot more. Hughes then begins to describe things he enjoys doing and realizes that despite the racism occurring, the two races are very similar. He believed â€Å"being colored doesn’t make [him] not like the same things other folks like who are other races†(1043). Hughes expresses how despite being colored, he still shares similar interests with other races (including whites). He decides to include this in order to point out how they are more related and equal than they think or care to see. Hughes begins to try to compare and relate himself to his professor. He describes how his professor is â€Å"white- yet a part of [him], as [he] [is] a part of [him]. That’s American† (1044). Hughes acknowledges their differences yet he is able to find a connection between them, which is how they are both American. Despite being different races, different color and from different areas, they still share being American with each other, therefore, sharing a â€Å"part of themâ₠¬ . This is an important statement, which embodies not only the changed attitudes during the Harlem Renaissance but also the African American life during that time. Hughes represents the changed attitude of being more aggressive in wanting equality by demonstrating their equality by both being Americans. Another important influential writer of the Harlem Renaissance is Zora Neale Hurston. Hurston is known for being able to â€Å"explore and capture Black cultural reality† (Harden 15). Especially in her essay How it Feels to Be Colored Me, Hurston vividly describes her experience as a child of when she was first made aware of being colored. Hurston was originally from Eatonville, Florida, a predominately colored neighborhood and it was not until she was sent to live in Jacksonville where she felt as though she did not fit in. Hurston begins the essay with the statement â€Å"I am colored† (Hurston 958). Hurston is very straightforward yet confident in how she is aware that she is a colored women, relating her American identity to being colored. Once Hurston was in her new environment, she felt as though her identity changed. She felt like she was â€Å"not Zora of Orange County any more, [she] was now a little colored girl† (959). Hurston’s identity changed when she moved because she felt as though she no longer fit in due to the racial differences of the area. She did not feel as if she was able to be just herself but as though she stood out and was viewed as solely the colored girl in her white neighborhood, meaning, the color of her skin defined her. Furthermore, Hurston describes how she is not always made aware or made self-cautious of her racial oppression due to being colored. She states: â€Å"I do not always feel colored†¦ I feel most colored when I am thrown against a sharp white background† (959).   Hurston claims she is usually made aware that there are racial differences due to her skin color when she is forced to notice it, by being surrounded or in a environment where there are mostly people of white skin color who therefore, make her skin color seem much more noticeable. Hurston then provides an example of a situation where this happens such as â€Å"at Barnard†¦[she] feel[s] [her] race. Among the thousand white persons, [she] [is] a dark rock surged upon, and overswept, but through it all, [she] remain[ed] [her]self† (960). Just like Hughes, Hurston went to a school in a predominately white area. Similarly to Hughes poem, Hurston uses this experience to explain how she was one of the few co lored people at her school, thus making her feel more aware of being black. Despite this realization of oppression and racism, Hurston expresses self-confidence, a common theme that was celebrated during the Harlem Renaissance, which emphasizes her views on African American identity during that time period. Lastly, just as Hughes does in his poem, Hurston points out how she is an American citizen but also colored. She believes she has â€Å"no separate feeling about being an American citizen and colored† (960). Stating that they are American allows them to show that being an American does not apply only to people who are white but people of color as well, further reclaiming their American identity. Hurston, along with Hughes, eloquently embodies the American identity of African American’s during the Harlem Renaissance. In conclusion, the Harlem Renaissance presented various works of literature and art that helped embody the time period but also helped influence future aspects of society. The Harlem Renaissance brought forward black confidence which allowed them to express their desires and needs for changes in society. This movement and its works allowed blacks to represent their American identity and how the races are equal. The works presented, of Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston, are works that can still be referenced to fight against the lasting oppression and racism that blacks face in society in present day. Harden, Renata, et al. â€Å"Reading the Harlem Renaissance into Public Policy: Lessons from the Past to the Present.† Afro-Americans in New York Life History, vol. 36, no. 2, July 2012, pp. 7–36. Hughes, Langston. â€Å"Theme for English B.† The Norton Anthology of American Literature, by Robert S. Levine et al., W.W. Norton Company, 2017, pp. 1043–1044. Hurston, Zora Neale. â€Å"The Norton Anthology of American Literature.† The Norton Anthology of American Literature, by Robert S. Levine et al., W.W. Norton Company, 2017, pp. 958–960. Standish, Noah. â€Å"Pain, Pride, Renewal: How Langston Hughes Embodied the Harlem Renaissance.† LOGOS: A Journal of Undergraduate Research, vol. 11, Fall 2018, pp. 40–50.

Monday, October 21, 2019

The Facts About Dry Ice

The Facts About Dry Ice Dry ice is the solid form of solid carbon dioxide, CO2. Here are some facts about dry ice that can help keep you safe when working with it- and are just fun to know. Dry Ice Facts Dry ice is solid carbon dioxide. It is sometimes called cardice.Dry ice is extremely cold (-109.3 °F or -78.5 °C). At this temperature, it sublimates from the solid state into the gaseous state or undergoes deposition from gas to solid. In order for dry ice to form liquid carbon dioxide, it needs to be placed in a high-pressure environment.The first published observation of dry ice was in 1835 by French chemist Charles Thilorier. He noted the formation of dry ice when a container of liquid carbon dioxide was opened.Dry ice resembles snow or water ice.  Its usually sold as chunks or pellets, which appear white because water vapor from the air readily freezes onto the surface. While it looks somewhat like ordinary water ice, its called dry because theres no intermediate liquid phase.Dry ice density usually ranges between 1.2 and 1.6 kg/dm3.The molecular weight of dry ice is 44.01 g/mole.Dry ice is nonpolar, with a dipole moment of zero. It has low thermal and electrical conductiv ity. The specific gravity of dry ice is 1.56 (water 1). Dry ice sinks in water and to the bottom of drinks.The white vapor released when dry ice sublimates does contain carbon dioxide, but its mostly water fog produced when the cool gas condenses water from the air.When dry ice is added to food, as when making ice cream or freezing fruit, the carbon dioxide carbonates the liquid and can react with water to form dilute carbonic acid. This adds an acidic or sour flavor.When dry ice sublimates, some of the carbon dioxide gas immediately mixes with air, but some of the cold dense gas sinks. Carbon dioxide concentrations increase near the floor of a room where a lot of dry ice is being used. Dry Ice Safety Contact with dry ice can result in frostbite and cold burns. Avoid allowing contact between dry ice and the skin, eyes, or mouth.Use insulated gloves when handling dry ice.Although dry ice and carbon dioxide are not toxic, the use of dry ice may present a respiratory hazard because it can sink and displace air near the ground. Also, when it mixes with the air, there is more carbon dioxide (less oxygen) in each breath. Use dry ice in a well-ventilated area.Do not eat or swallow dry ice.Do not seal dry ice in glass or other closed containers, since the pressure buildup may result in breakage or bursting.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Lockheed P-38 Lightning in World War II

Lockheed P-38 Lightning in World War II Designed by Lockheed in 1937, the P-38 Lightning was the companys attempt to meet the requirements of the US Army Air Corps Circular Proposal X-608 which called for a twin-engine, high-altitude interceptor. Authored by First Lieutenants Benjamin S. Kelsey and Gordon P. Saville, the term interceptor was specifically used in the specification to bypass USAAC restrictions regarding armament weight and number of engines. The two also issued a specification for a single-engine interceptor, Circular Proposal X-609, which would ultimately produce the Bell P-39 Airacobra.   Design Calling for an aircraft capable of 360 mph and reaching 20,000 ft. within six minutes, X-608 presented a variety of challenges for Lockheed designers Hall Hibbard and Kelly Johnson. Assessing a variety of twin-engine planforms, the two men finally opted for a radical design that was unlike any previous fighter. This saw the engines and turbo-superchargers placed in twin tail booms while the cockpit and armament were located in a central nacelle. The central nacelle was connected to the tail booms by the aircrafts wings.   Powered by a pair of 12-cylinder Allison V-1710 engines, the new aircraft was the first fighter capable of exceeding 400 mph. To eliminate the issue of engine torque, the design employed counter-rotating propellers. Other features included a bubble canopy for superior pilot vision and the use of a tricycle undercarriage. Hibbard and Johnsons design was also one of the first American fighters to extensively utilize flush-riveted aluminum skin panels. Unlike other American fighters, the new design saw the aircrafts armament clustered in the nose rather than mounted in the wings. This configuration increased the effective range of the aircrafts weapons as they did not need to be set for a specific convergence point as was necessary with wing-mounted guns. Initial mockups called for an armament consisting of two .50-cal. Browning M2 machine guns, two .30-cal. Browning machine guns, and a  T1 Army Ordnance 23  mm autocannon. Additional testing and refinement led to a final armament of four .50-cal. M2s and a 20mm Hispano autocannon.       Development Designated the Model 22, Lockheed won the USAACs competition on June 23, 1937. Moving forward, Lockheed commenced building the first prototype in July 1938. Dubbed the XP-38, it flew for the first time on January 27, 1939 with Kelsey at the controls. The aircraft soon achieved fame when it set a new cross-continent speed record the following month after flying from California to New York in seven hours and two minutes. Based on the results of this flight, the USAAC ordered 13 aircraft for further testing on April 27. Production of these fell behind due to the expansion of Lockheeds facilities and the first aircraft was not delivered until September 17, 1940. That same month, the USAAC placed an initial order for 66 P-38s. The YP-38s were heavily redesigned to facilitate mass production and were substantially lighter than the prototype. Additionally, to enhance stability as a gun platform, the aircrafts propeller rotation was changed to have the blades spin outward from the cockpit rather inward as on the XP-38. As testing progressed, problems with compressibility stalls were noticed when the aircraft entered steep dives at high speed. Engineers at Lockheed worked on several solutions, however it was not until 1943 that this problem was completely resolved. Specifications (P-38L): General Length: 37 ft. 10 in.Wingspan: 52 ft.Height: 9 ft. 10 in.Wing Area: 327.5 sq. ft.Empty Weight: 12,780 lbs.Loaded Weight: 17,500 lbs.Crew: 1 Performance Power Plant: 2 x Allison V-1710-111/113 liquid-cooled turbo-supercharged V-12, 1,725 hpRange: 1,300 miles (combat)Max Speed: 443 mphCeiling: 44,000 ft. Armament Guns: 1 x Hispano M2(C) 20 mm cannon, 4 x Colt-Browning MG53-2 0.50 in. machine gunsBombs/Rockets: 10 x 5 in. High Velocity Aircraft Rocket OR 4 x M10 three-tube 4.5 in OR up to 4,000 lbs. in bombs Operational History: With World War II raging in Europe, Lockheed received an order for 667 P-38s from Britain and France in early 1940. The entirety of the order was assumed by the British following Frances defeat in May. Designating the aircraft the Lightning I, the British name took hold and became common usage among Allied forces. The P-38 entered service in 1941, with the US 1st Fighter Group. With the US entry into the war, P-38s were deployed to the West Coast to defend against an anticipated Japanese attack. The first to see frontline duty were F-4 photo reconnaissance aircraft which operated from Australia in April 1942. The next month, P-38s were sent to the Aleutian Islands where the aircrafts long range made it ideal for dealing with Japanese activities in the area. On August 9, the P-38 scored its first kills of the war when the 343rd Fighter Group downed a pair of Japanese Kawanishi H6K flying boats. Through the middle of 1942, the majority of P-38 squadrons were sent to Britain as part of the Operation Bolero. Others were sent to North Africa, where they aided the Allies in gaining control of skies over the Mediterranean. Recognizing the aircraft as a formidable opponent, the Germans named the P-38 the Fork-Tailed Devil. Back in Britain, the P-38 was again utilized for its long range and it saw extensive service as a bomber escort. Despite a good combat record, the P-38 was plagued with engine issues largely due to the lower quality of European fuels. While this was resolved with the introduction of the P-38J, many fighter groups were transitioned to the new P-51 Mustang by late 1944. In the Pacific, the P-38 saw extensive service for the duration of the war and downed more Japanese aircraft than any other US Army Air Forces fighter. Though not as maneuverable as the Japanese A6M Zero, the P-38s power and speed allowed it to fight on its own terms. The aircraft also benefited from having its armament mounted in the nose as it meant that P-38 pilots could engage targets at a longer range, sometimes avoiding the need to close with Japanese aircraft. Noted US ace Major Dick Bong frequently chose to down enemy planes in this fashion, relying on the longer range of his weapons. On April 18, 1943, the aircraft flew one of its most famous missions when 16 P-38Gs were dispatched from Guadalcanal to intercept a transport carrying the Commander-in-Chief of the Japanese Combined Fleet, Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, near Bougainville. Skimming the waves to avoid detection, the P-38s succeeded in downing the admirals plane as well as three others. By the end of the war, the P-38 had downed over 1,800 Japanese aircraft, with over 100 pilots becoming aces in the process. Variants During the course of the conflict, the P-38 received a variety of updates and upgrades. The initial model to enter production, the P-38E consisted of 210 aircraft and was the first combat ready variant. Later versions of the aircraft, the P-38J and P-38L were the most widely produced at 2,970 and 3,810 aircraft respectively. Enhancements to the aircraft included improved electrical and cooling systems as well as the fitting of pylons for launching  high velocity aircraft rockets. In addition to a variety of photo reconnaissance F-4 models, Lockheed also produced a night fighter version of the Lightning dubbed the P-38M. This featured an  AN/APS-6 radar pod and a second seat in the cockpit for a radar operator.    Postwar: With the US Air Force moving into the jet age after the war, many P-38s were sold to foreign air forces. Among the nations to purchase surplus P-38s were Italy, Honduras, and China. The aircraft was also made available to the general public for the price of $1,200. In civilian life, the P-38 became a popular aircraft with air racers and stunt fliers, while the photo variants were put into use by mapping and survey companies.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Organizational Culture Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Organizational Culture - Research Paper Example An organization that sticks to its organizational culture builds a good reputation with both its internal and external environments. On the other hand, organizational commitment refers to the psychological attachment and willingness for an employee to continue working in an organization. This paper seeks to expound on organizational culture and organizational commitment of employees according to a survey carried out on primary school teachers in Turkey. Clearly in the book, in any organization, culture establishes norms in the structure of the organization developing a social organism with specific beliefs, values, and behaviors1. Therefore, just as depicted the article, the book confirms the fact that the employees learn and focus on the organizational expectations on the values and behaviors in line with the organizational culture2. In addition, organizational culture guides the framework for leadership styles, work environment, and work strategies. Research shows that there exist a direct connection between organizational culture and performance. Positive and supportive organizational culture promotes performance as well as creativity and innovations. There is a clear interaction among organizational culture, vision and mission, leadership and management, interpersonal relationships and organizational images. A research conducted among teachers indicates that personal attributes contribute to organizational culture. It shows that beginner teachers have no interest in their new schools hence they do not take organizational culture with seriousness. They only embrace competition culture since they want to secure attention and recognition. Another study conducted among secondary school teachers shows that school principals embrace more positive and stronger organizational culture than their subordinates. This means that top management is more interested in organizational culture than the middle and line managers are. Generally, top management is associated with strategy formulation and disciplinary responsibility, therefore, calling for commitment to the organizational culture. The research in both the publications further indicates that, not all female teachers and beginners trust their colleagues. This is because new teachers have not understood and fitted in well with the organizational culture. However, female teachers do not trust male dominated organization for the fear of intimidation and dishonest. This lies under the masculinity verses femininity grouping that reflects on gender dominance in an organization. Gender dominance translates to gender roles, cultural values, and power relations. In conflict management, different aspects of culture are emulated as depicted in the publications. For instant, the force is resorted in individual cultures whereas in collective culture, compromising, withdrawing and problem solving are embraced. In conflict management, both male and female embrace different strategies. For example, male emplo yees use force to solve their individual conflict while the female prefers compromising in conflict management. This emerges due to disharmony between personal and collective goals. Collective culture focuses on the emotional dependence of the whole organization while individualism focuses on individual goal3. Organizational cult

Friday, October 18, 2019

Trends in Terrorism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Trends in Terrorism - Essay Example Tsunamis, hurricanes, and typhoons are just a few natural disasters that mankind faces from time to time (Kapur & Smith, 2010). It is up to different individuals to set the stage for some of them to be tackled. This paper will examine one such disaster, and some of the communication problems agencies might have faced when it came down to handling the situation. Hurricane Katrina, to some, may have been the worst hurricane to ever hit the Atlantic. It is estimated to have killed over 1, 800 people, and the damage assessed to over 80 billion U.S dollars. Communication failure might have worked to increase the damage in terms of lives lost and the property destroyed. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) director at the time was forced to resign because of the actions or lack of actions, to warn of the failure of the levee system to drain the flood water. The New Orleans Police Department also had to let go of the Superintendent after investigations were conducted into the fail ure of the levee system in the area (Milakovich & Gordon, 2011). Accurate weather tracking were provided by the U.S Coast Guard and the National Hurricane Center. However, none of these agencies were provided with sufficient knowledge about the levee system in the areas affected, and there was no way the citizens in the area could have automatically known of their fate. During the impact of Katrina, a lot of areas needed health information. Unfortunately, as the devastation of the hurricane continued, it was crucial for the agencies present to change their strategies to those of drown prevention and protection against electrical threats (Izard & Perkins, 2011). The fire departments in some of the states affected were destroyed completely, making the rescue efforts harder for the local agencies and some of the personnel to reach the affected areas. Communication became a problem due to the loss of information centers in these regions. There were reports of department personnel from s ome of the agencies abandoning their posts during the storm. There would have been no definite channel of communication between the different departments and agencies that were present during the evacuation and rescue operations. The destroyed communication infrastructure disabled rescue attempts as there could no longer be any coordination of response teams. There could be no access to the police and fire dispatch centers present in the affected areas, and no public safety radio system was able to operate adequately. In one incident, a senior state official was reported as saying there was no channel of communication and people were writing messages on paper, putting them in bottles, and throwing them in the water for people on the ground (Milakovich & Gordon, 2011). The inadequacy and inefficiency of response teams had consequences on the lives and property of the individuals in the affected areas. The economic, social, and even political scene was changing as people were quick to point fingers in every direction. In terms of repairs for some of the damages, the administration at the time sought for over $100 billion to start some of the repairs. Land was destroyed in the aftermath of Katrina, for example in Mississippi; acres of forest land were destroyed. The redistribution of people changed the social scene drastically

American Political Thought Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

American Political Thought - Essay Example Ever since Cain killed Abel, it became necessary to protect future Abels, and to restrain the Cains. And after the concept of private property became established, it became crucial to protect that as well. Thus was born the 'state'. The government is the manifest spirit of the state - constituted by a group of people who represent it. The legitimacy of the state and its government is thus based on the interests of the people it serves; and this dictum holds true for even the most autocratic state governed by the most despotic of rulers. Is the role of the government, one of mere maintenance - of peace and security, and private property, or should it concern itself with much more than that Let us examine this question, with reference, primarily, to the views of Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) a naturalist and 'philosopher cum political theorist' (perhaps the term reminds us of the Platonic, 'Philosopher-King Though Thoreau himself would have been quite appalled to have himself be compared to any 'king', despite the addition of the title 'philosopher'!) Thoreau's views on the state, which are set down in his work Civil Disobedience, influenced not only Mohandas Gandhi and Martin Luther King, but also those who struggled for the abolition of apartheid in South Africa, and more recently into the '70's and till today - those (especially in America) who have taken an ethical stand against war. Thoreau unequivocally rejected the right of the state to impose taxes, and stated that "that government is best which governs the least" (website The immediate reason for Thoreau's writing, summarily rejecting the authority of the state was on account of his being imprisoned (this was only for a day, as he was bailed out by his family, much to his discomfiture!). He had refused to pay a poll tax, and his refusal was a deliberate act of defiance, as he stated that the government had no right to tax him. He declared that it was against his conscience to pay taxes to a government, which indulged in acts he did not approve of. Although the government, especially in a democracy, represented the voice of the people, Thoreau stated that it also stood for the interests of elite politicians, which he was in no way ready to support. He went to the extent of arguing that even if the government did right, and followed the will of the majority, those who chose to disagree with the majority also had their right to not follow the diktats of this majority as expressed through the government; they (the minority) should be permitted to live on their own, unconnected with the state. (McElroy) He was, in fact, recommending a situation of peaceful and constructive anarchy, where each individual could choose to dwell within or without the 'confines' (in the abstract and not a physical sense) of the state, as he pleased. What did Thoreau find so repugnant with the government of his day He objected to the government's support and continuance of slavery and also the Mexican-American war. Thoreau wrote his Civil Disobedience roughly fifteen years before slavery was abolished in the US, and the debate over its abolition was just gaining momentum. Apart from this, the government had embarked on a policy of expansion, based on a common perception that it was the "Manifest Destiny" (McElroy) of America to expand and bring under control the native populations. In this process, Texas was annexed, and this led to a

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Movie review Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Movie review - Essay Example The movie draws Stone’s experience in the war and most of the characters in the movie were his colleagues in the Vietnam War. The movie starts with the arrival of Chris Taylor in Vietnam where he joined other U.S soldiers in the war as a volunteer with very little war experience (Platoon). Indeed, Chris Taylor was a young, innocent American college dropout who volunteered to join the Vietnam combat. Subsequently, subject to his lack of war experience, his presence in the warzone was initially insignificant and hence the feeling of loneliness. Indeed, Chris Taylor had fought for a short period and did not possess any effects of the war as compared to other soldiers. Nevertheless, the movie assets that Chris Taylor joined the Bravo Company, 25th Infantry near the Cambodian border along other seasoned soldiers. At first, the exhaustion nearly drove his enthusiasm away but the movie demonstrates his will to persevere. Indeed, the movie manifests that after witnessing combat and ge tting injuries from the war, Chris Taylor effectively integrated into the Bravo Company. The movie reflects on the role of Chris Taylor in the unit and his relationship with the fellow soldiers who lead the Bravo Company (Platoon). Actually, Sgt. Barnes as Tom Berenger and Sgt. Elias as Willem Dafoe were leading the platoon. The movie portrays Sgt. Barnes as a man who encountered violence and corruption of his soul in the war through the scars on his face. On the other hand, Sgt. Elias is a calm man who lost his belief in the war and hence continues to fight with his personal and moral courage. As such, there existed immense rivalry between the two sergeants in the leadership of the platoon. Chris Taylor was thus a victim of this rivalry. Indeed, Chris Taylor was now fighting against the enemy on one side and equally fighting the conflict within his platoon. Actually, the two sergeants out lightly conflicted during an illegal killing occur during a village raid (Platoon). Platoon gi ves a clear reflection of the war and the moral issues involved in the war. More so, the movie relevantly mixes the reality of the war with small realistic details like exhaustion and the counting of day to the end of the war. Furthermore, the platoon depicts various battles that took place in the Vietnam War during the night and village raids. Most significantly is the fact that many of the characters in the movie are symbols with a deeper meaning. For instance, Elias and Barnes reflect the good and evil in the Vietnam War though none is entirely good or evil. Notably, the platoon entails the live caption of chaos and confusion within the battle thus negating the characteristics of a traditional war movie. Moreover, the movie establishes all the details that relate to a war and the dehumanizing power of war. As a result, the platoon stands out as the most realistic movie in Vietnam (Platoon). This movie relates to the book, The Vietnam war 1945 - 1990 by Marilyn Young. The book see ks to give the conflicting sides of the war. Indeed, the book establishes the conflicts between political and American foreign policy (Young 8-15). This clearly relates to the conflict among the American soldiers as seen in the platoon especially between Sgt. Barnes and Sgt. Elias. More so, the book derives the history of the Vietnam, war just as seen in the pl

Global Organizational Environment Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Global Organizational Environment - Article Example This is a reflective essay which summarises my learning experience gained through the entire model describing each of the sessions undertaken by me all through the course. One aspect has been chosen in each of the sessions’ and an academic journal has been selected which helped me to have a further detailed knowledge about the topics covered in each of the sessions. Session 1: Organizational form and purpose The first session of the module was meant to have an understanding about the various types of business concerns operating in different parts of the world and how they are governed. This session was a great learning experience for me that helped me to have a wide knowledge about different types of organisations, their primary motives or purposes, the concepts of corporate governance and stakeholders and the various ethical issues concerned with the business activities followed by the organizations. The concept of corporate governance and the problems related to the agency t heory was an interesting topic discussed in this session. Agency theory is one of the corporate governance theories which have marked significant importance in the recent years. Jensen and Meckling (1976) are commonly associated with the term agency theory as found in most of the existing literature. The journal named â€Å"A Survey of Corporate Governance† by Shleifer and Vishny (1997) helped me to know more about the issues related to corporate governance systems followed by different business organisations worldwide. It also helped to have knowledge about the concept of ownership concentration found in business concerns. Enron can be cited as one of the many examples related to an organisation which restored to unethical accounting practices because of the existing agency problems associated with the company. It is recorded as one of the major accounting scandals which have ultimately led to the downfall of Enron (Arnold, & Lange, 2004). Session 2: Transnational business a nd its role in contemporary society This session was aimed at having knowledge about the various roles played by transnational companies (TNCs) and how they have contributed to global trade. This session helped me to learn about the impacts of TNCs on the global trading environment, different types of internationalisation strategies followed by organisations, costs and benefits associated with free trade mechanism, and role of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and World Trade Organisation (WTO). Different types of internationalisation strategies followed by TNCs and other global organisations were of particular interest to me. Internationalisation is a process which is followed by organisations to expand their business outside their national boundaries and it can be achieved through various strategies followed by different firms. The journal named "Internationalization strategies for services" by Gronroos (1999) speaks about five types of internationalisation strategies that are followed by service organisations with their motives to establish their business abroad. Those internationalisat

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Movie review Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Movie review - Essay Example The movie draws Stone’s experience in the war and most of the characters in the movie were his colleagues in the Vietnam War. The movie starts with the arrival of Chris Taylor in Vietnam where he joined other U.S soldiers in the war as a volunteer with very little war experience (Platoon). Indeed, Chris Taylor was a young, innocent American college dropout who volunteered to join the Vietnam combat. Subsequently, subject to his lack of war experience, his presence in the warzone was initially insignificant and hence the feeling of loneliness. Indeed, Chris Taylor had fought for a short period and did not possess any effects of the war as compared to other soldiers. Nevertheless, the movie assets that Chris Taylor joined the Bravo Company, 25th Infantry near the Cambodian border along other seasoned soldiers. At first, the exhaustion nearly drove his enthusiasm away but the movie demonstrates his will to persevere. Indeed, the movie manifests that after witnessing combat and ge tting injuries from the war, Chris Taylor effectively integrated into the Bravo Company. The movie reflects on the role of Chris Taylor in the unit and his relationship with the fellow soldiers who lead the Bravo Company (Platoon). Actually, Sgt. Barnes as Tom Berenger and Sgt. Elias as Willem Dafoe were leading the platoon. The movie portrays Sgt. Barnes as a man who encountered violence and corruption of his soul in the war through the scars on his face. On the other hand, Sgt. Elias is a calm man who lost his belief in the war and hence continues to fight with his personal and moral courage. As such, there existed immense rivalry between the two sergeants in the leadership of the platoon. Chris Taylor was thus a victim of this rivalry. Indeed, Chris Taylor was now fighting against the enemy on one side and equally fighting the conflict within his platoon. Actually, the two sergeants out lightly conflicted during an illegal killing occur during a village raid (Platoon). Platoon gi ves a clear reflection of the war and the moral issues involved in the war. More so, the movie relevantly mixes the reality of the war with small realistic details like exhaustion and the counting of day to the end of the war. Furthermore, the platoon depicts various battles that took place in the Vietnam War during the night and village raids. Most significantly is the fact that many of the characters in the movie are symbols with a deeper meaning. For instance, Elias and Barnes reflect the good and evil in the Vietnam War though none is entirely good or evil. Notably, the platoon entails the live caption of chaos and confusion within the battle thus negating the characteristics of a traditional war movie. Moreover, the movie establishes all the details that relate to a war and the dehumanizing power of war. As a result, the platoon stands out as the most realistic movie in Vietnam (Platoon). This movie relates to the book, The Vietnam war 1945 - 1990 by Marilyn Young. The book see ks to give the conflicting sides of the war. Indeed, the book establishes the conflicts between political and American foreign policy (Young 8-15). This clearly relates to the conflict among the American soldiers as seen in the platoon especially between Sgt. Barnes and Sgt. Elias. More so, the book derives the history of the Vietnam, war just as seen in the pl

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Race Relationships in US Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Race Relationships in US - Essay Example This necessitated former confederates and the southern legislatures to pass laws called black codes, which greatly limited African American rights and segregated them from the whites. In 1877, recontruction was ended when Democratic parties reclaimed control of the south, which was very devastating for blacks since all the gains they had made such as forming political parties, voting rights as well as participation as equal entities were reversed. Thus the south, slowly reinstated laws that were racially discriminating and whose agenda was to segregate as well as disenfranchisement. The Democratic Party started stopping African Americans from voting so as to take away the power African Americans had gained. There were several ways to prevent blacks from voting and they included; poll taxes, literacy tests as well as charging of fees at voting booths. Additionally, in 1883, the civil rights case saw the Supreme Court declare that Congress lacked power to stop private acts of prejudice. The police and legal system supported segregation. Thousands of blacks were murdered by the Ku Klux Klan as well as other terrorists groups such as Knights of White Camellia. Thus prominent black land owners, community leaders as well as politicians. The Jim Crow laws entrenched discrimination. This was a system of customs and laws that imposed racial discrimination and segregation throughout the US, particularly in the south, beginning from the late 19th century to the 1960s.These laws did not particularly mention race, however they were written and applied in a manner that prejudiced African Americans. These laws ensured segregation in stores, libraries, entertainment as well as stores. This really fuelled an atmosphere of racial discrimination and there was a rise in rioting, Ku Klux Klan and lynching. Blacks, mostly in south were discriminated against in housing and jobs and frequently deprived of their constitutional

Modern Scientific Theories Essay Example for Free

Modern Scientific Theories Essay For years evolutionists and creationists have been arguing about the way the world was created and whether it has been designed or has evolved over thousands of millions of years. William Paley was a creationist and believed that the universe must have a designer, as it is so complex with many complex organisms. To him it was observable that the universe is designed and if this is true then there must be a designer, which he believed to be God. Many scientists disagree with this theory and say that there is another way the universe could be how it is today. Scientists believe in the theory of the big bang. Unlike the creationists who take each word of the bible literally and believe that God created the universe in 6 days about 6000 years ago scientists believe the universe was created by the big bang about 15000 million years ago. The big bang theory states that the universe was created by a big explosion that threw out materials that now have created the universe of galaxies and stars and planets. It can be proven that the universe is expanding by the red shift of light and the movement of galaxies away from us. As with all explosions the big bang also let out beams of radiation which can still be seen today as the explosion was so large. Some people believe that this theory of the big bang is too much to believe, it is too amazing that all this could have happened without something to cause it. The energy of the big bang was perfect for creating the universe. If it had been less the explosion would not have created galaxies but just dust and if it had been too much life could never exist. The gravity of the universe must also have been perfect for life to exist in the universe, and many people believe the only way this could all be perfect is by something to design it with the right amount of energy, a source of energy to always exist and the right of gravity. People believe this to be God and think of the scientific theory of the big bang to also be as true as God. Creationists look at the bible of scientific truths and therefore do not accept the scientific truths of the big bang theory. However, the bible teaches us religious truths and so is another description of the same creation story. There are three types of people, the creationists who  believe every word of the bible, the scientists who do not believe in God or follow the bible and the people that agree with both theories and do not believe they are in opposition. Those scientists who do not believe in God say that if the big bang was the start of everything, including time, then God cannot exist before the big bang as there was no before as time did not exist. This to them proves that there is no designer involved in the process of creation. Evolutionists such as Richard Dawkins believe Darwins theory of evolution proves creationists wrong. As Hume said, if we were not always the way we are now then how could we be designed, the fact humans did not always exist, for example in the time of the dinosaurs, and we exist now then we must have somehow evolved. Creationists have an argument against the fact that we didnt exist when dinosaurs did. In a town called Glen Rose in Texas Fossilised dinosaur footprints were found alongside large Human footprints. Creationists and the people of Glen Rose believe that this disproves the Darwinian Theory as it proves that dinosaurs and humans co-existed. The evolutionists are trying to prove that these are not human footprints as it attacks their theory strongly. As can be seen Creationists and Evolutionists are continuously attacking each other, as creationism keeps re-appearing. Some creationists feel so strongly about their beliefs that they will not allow evolution to be taught in schools. This happens in Glen Rose and in many other places. Creationists are people that take the creation story in the bible very literally and believe that the universe was created in six days. Evolutionists say that this is impossible because they have proof that the universe evolved over thousands of years and is still not complete. They believe that evolution has no target and is a blind automatic process to which there is no end target or goal. They follow Darwins theory of evolution and natural selection. Paley, who believes the universe is designed, uses the example of the eye as one that proves that the earth is designed; he says that many organisms have very complex eye systems, such as a moth that has a very complex eye. If this eye was not designed then how  did it become as complex as it is? Evolution and science says that the eye can build up through cumulative processes of random selection and mutation. Unlike Paley they do not believe the eye was formed in one single step but believe it was a multitude of steps of evolution and is not pure chance. Their proof for this is that all the stages of evolution of an eye can be seen in different organism. Some organisms have very simple eyes and others more complex. They have not only proved this for the eye but for many other organs. The heart of a human is very complex and has a double circulation system; this is more advanced than the heart of a mouse, which proves that creation takes place in steps. Evolution is a process propelled by survival of the fittest where an insect that looks 15% like a leaf will survive longer than an insect, which only looks 4% like a leaf. The insect that looks most lie a leaf will survive to reproduce and pass on the gene that makes it look like a leaf to its offspring and after generations that particular insect will look more and more like a leaf. This process takes place with all organisms and wrongly causes people to think that the universe is designed by God and created in 6 days. From a scientific point the design argument is wrong as it creates a distinction between humans and other species, which does not exist. According to genetic information species are not as different from each other as people like Paley make out they are. Although science has tried very hard to disprove the design argument many people believe that both could be true and they are just different forms of saying the truth. They believe that the scientific theory of creation is just a more complex and detailed way of telling the same story that Genesis suggests and that the design argument is simply a simpler version of the same thing. There are a few ways that religious people or people who believe in a designer can relate Darwins theory to the idea of God. A theistic interventionist approach states that God created the souls of organisms but that the bodies could be developed through evolution. The body of Adam may have evolved through natural selection but his soul was created and  designed directly by God. Another way that science and the design argument link is that evolution and God dont have to be mutually exclusive and evolution could be the way that God operates. This is the idea of Karl Rahner. The philosopher Henri Bergson argued in his book Creative Evolution that there was something that made evolution take place, and that evolution is part of Gods design. AS of yet no answer has been found that is universally believed for the creation of the universe and all we have are persuasive arguments. Bibliography *The Question is (video) *The Blind Watchmaker (video) *The Question Of God Michael Palmer *Religion and Science Mel Thompson *Looking For God Robert Kirkwood

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Critical Discourse Analysis On Imagine English Language Essay

Critical Discourse Analysis On Imagine English Language Essay A song is a relatively short musical composition for the human voice (possibly accompanied by other musical instruments), which features words (lyrics). However, when we are talking about a song, we can not ignore the singer who is going to sing the song and make it popular. Then, when it comes to the singer, we may remember a name called, John Lennon. Almost all people around the world know who John Lennon is and also his band, The Beatles. He already became a pop legend in music history. He had written some hits that are sung again and again until now. Several of his songs were about peace and war. Imagine, which was released in 1971  [2]  , is also one of his popular hits with that topic. With a social theme and a strong message, this song has touched many people. Therefore, it means the words that were chosen for this song are effective and perfectly delivered the message, so it can touch the listeners emotion. The purpose of this essay is to do a critical discourse analysis on Imagine by John Lennon using several theories. The first theory that is used in this essay is critical linguistics by Roger Fowler, Robert Hodge, Gunther Kress, and Tony Trew. Critical linguistics sees language as a social practice and through which a group can empower and spread its ideology (Eriyanto, 2005)  [3]  . This theory analyzes language through two elements, which are vocabularies and grammar. This theory believes that a discourse can convey its ideology based on the choices of vocabularies and also the use of the grammar. Choices of vocabularies can cause few effects in a discourse such as make a classification, limited view, battle of discourse, and marginalization. On the other hands, there are several models in the grammar. Therefore, a discourse would never be neutral because the writer chooses every single word to form the meaning that he/she wants to tell. A discourse always conveys a certain ide a or ideology to the audience. Next, the second theory is the theory that was introduced by Sara Mills. She used to see a discourse from the feminist perspective, how a woman is being portrait in a discourse. Although, she was known more for her womans representation in a discourse, her theory approach can be applied in other fields. If critical linguistics tends to analyze a discourse from the language aspects and how it influenced the audience, Sara Mills sees the position of the actors who perform in a discourse. At first, she compares the position between the subject and the object. Then, she also sees the position of the writer and the reader. Although with its simplicity and clarity  [4]  , Imagine is rich of meaning because anybody can have different interpretation of it. The message of this song is that lets create a world which is peace and no war. This message is repeated again and again in the last part of this stanza. In the first stanza, it is said imagine all the people, living for today, in the second stanza imagine all the people, living life in peace, while in the third stanza, it is said imagine all the people, sharing all the world. The message even becomes stronger with the chorus part, where it is stated the world will be as one. Those clauses form a message to the audience which is to make a better world. Furthermore, the repetition of the message, although in different words, but still have the same meaning, makes the audience get this message easier and then remember it better. The word Imagine itself, besides being used for the title, it also repeated several times in the song.Imagine as a verb means form a picture of in the mind; think of something as probable (Hornby, Cowie, A.C, 1974). Therefore, imagine happens before the reality. Imagine itself has several synonyms. Then, why the writer chooses imagine in the end. Meaning Imagine : to have a picture or idea of something in your mind. 1. Imagine To think about something and form a picture or idea in your mind about it. 2. Visualize / Visualise To form a very clear picture of something or someone in your mind, especially in order to help you prepare to do something or help you to remember something clearly. 3. Picture To have a clear picture of something or someone in your mind, especially because you are trying to imagine what it is like to do something or what someone looks like. Imagine : to imagine something you want to do or want to happen 1. Fantasize / Fantasise To think about something that you would like to do or that you would like to happen, especially when it is very unlikely that you will do it or that it will happen. 2. Daydream To spend a short time imagining something pleasant, so that you forget where you are and what you are doing, especially when you are bored. 3. Dream To imagine something pleasant that you would like to or to happen, especially if it is possible that it might happen. Table 1 : Words related to imagine according to Longman Language Activator, 2006 Every synonyms of the word imagine have the same meaning which is to think about something and form picture in someones mind. Then, why imagine is chosen? Because each words carries certain meaning, sense and also describes different condition, although they all have similar meaning. Visualize and picture describe about thinking something that is already clear. However, we can not feel any clarity sense from the imagine word. As a result, the word imagine is appropriate with the context because the condition, which was peace, that the writer wanted was not clear yet and even until we hear it now, this situation remains not clear. Although it sounds simple and easy to say, peace is something complicated and it depends on who is saying it. Peace is an abstract condition, we cannot really define this condition with words and every body would have different perseption about this. Furthermore, fantasize and daydream are also not appropriate for the song context. Both fantasize and daydream are thinking about something which is out of reach and not likely to happen, or in other words, the possibility to that event to happen

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Interest groups and politics :: essays research papers

Interest Groups and Politics As we approach the 2004 presidential election everyone is getting in line to throw their money into the Proverbial feeding trough that all politicians take from. Campaigns are made and broke depending on how much money they have to spend. Fundraising is one way for politicians to receive contributions from your typical everyday blue collar citizen, but where do the four and five figure contributions come from? They come from intrest groups and lobbyists. These are the people, companies, and organizations that control our government whether they admit it or not. Campaign are run by this money and their agendas are the ones that congress on both the state and national level. The best way to sum up how all this works is "You’re one of 435 ants in the House, and unless you’re on the right committee a lot of these people don’t even return your phone calls." — Rep. Joe Scarborough (R-Fla.), on raising money from PAC directors ("Speaking Freely, 2nd Ed." by Larry Makinson (Center for Responsive Politics, 2003)). Interest groups give what is called â€Å"soft money† to candidates; in return these candidates push the issues that the interest groups hold important. For instance, recently on 60 MINUTES they ran a special on the prescription drug companies and the government. It is shown that the United Sates pays double for medication what the rest of the world pays for the same thing. The reason this is occurring is due to the fact that these drug manufacturers are pumping hundreds of thousands of dollars in to these campaigns. Since 1999 certain legislators have received more then one and a half million dollars in campaign contributions from pharmaceutical companies. President Bush personally has received half a million dollars. (60Minutes, CBS News). It is quite amazing that if you look at the top 100 overall donators in 2002 that seven of them are the largest drug manufactors in the world, and the are all heavy republican supporters. On the same side to this is the insurance companies . They also give large contributions to politicians. In 2002, companies such as Blue Cross / Blue Shield, AFLAC, and Cigna, were all huge contributors to the Republican Party. Since the late 80’s republican have always been able to raise more soft money. In 2002 alone democrats raised 217 million dollars, while the republicans raised a whopping 442 million in soft money (opensecrets.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Animation and transition Effects

According to what is mentioned in the fundamentals of the system, the user requirements, the slides must consist of some animation effects pictures and words. The system must also include transition effects where one slide changes to another. On the first slide or homepage however, there will be no animation or transition effects, because most of the information is displayed on the Main Page and if for example each contaminant of the Contents is seen appearing, disappearing, dissolving e.t.c, then the user is most likely to get confused. The other disadvantage of including animations and transition effects on the homepage is that they take some time of carry out the effect, and even though the timings can be changed, it is almost certain that it will take the reader more than 5 seconds to learn how to use the system. However, the reader may still get confused when navigating throughout the other slides seeing many different transition effects taking place. So there will only be two transition effects used which are Checker box across and Checker box down. The user will have the choice of clicking on a selected category from the Contents, if he does not do this within a generous period of 2 minutes then the transition effect will automatically take place and the slide will change to the next slide. This will be useful because people who just wish to look at the system and don't want to use it, or foreigners, they can see the cool effects and different slides which will be very eye catching and attract the users attention. Breakdown of final solution into sub-tasks Even though the final design was considered best possible from a range of people, there was still room for implementation, which additionally helped, achieves a professional looking eye catching, attractive system. What to do to implement the final design and how to do it can be put into a step-by-step list, and each can be put into sub-tasks The first task: Create the homepage slide (the first slide that the user will see when using the system) The Title the Amp Oval will be done in the specified font but the letter ‘O' in ‘Oval' in the cricket ball shape will be achieved by copying the text into Microsoft Paint, then selecting or free-form selecting the letter ‘O' and adding colour using colour applying facilities and further manipulating the ‘O' into a Cricket Ball. The second task: Obtaining the grass effect: The grass effect in the background will be obtained by saving a picture of grass from the internet. Only one square chunk of the grass will need to be copied and pasted in Microsoft Paint so that the contrast and colour can be altered to make it have the effect of a background. This will then be copied and pasted several times in the presentation to fill the appropriate areas. The third task: Creating navigation buttons: In Microsoft PowerPoint there is already a making-life easy option of inserting action buttons under the slide show menu. This also contains the facilities for decisions to be made of what slide to hyperlink to by pressing the button. If the button need be altered then by clicking the button, a menu will open up ‘Format auto shape' where the colour of the button, and various other things can be done to the action button. The fourth task: Adding maps and images: The Site map locating the Amp Oval will be scanned directly out of an A-Z on the appropriate page. It will be saved as a .jpeg file and opened up in Microsoft Paint, where the size can be changed to fit it in the available area, and an arrow and an ‘X' can be marked to show where exactly on the map it is. The stadium side view image will be imported from the internet onto the system. This will be saved as well as a larger image, which is the result of stretching the original image. The t-shirt will be opened in Paint and parts of it will be changed using the select option. The fifth task: Adding animation and transitional effects to each slide: Each slide will contain similar animation and transition effects to add more interest and get the users attention. The final task: Testing to see if the system works: Ultimately the most important task is to check if the system works, if it doesn't work as required then the errors can be corrected. If this final task is not carried out, then there is no idea if the system will meet the User requirements. Test Plan It can not be emphasized enough how important it is to carry out a test plan to confirm and re-confirm that the design contains everything mentioned in the user requirements, any additional, and implementations are to be considered after the design has been implemented. It is very important to know that no errors are to be discovered in the system. Therefore, a test plan has been assembled together and thought of with great precision to make sure that the system is to the highest of standards.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Religions of the World Jesus/Mohammed

Two thousand years have come and gone, but still they remain the unfinished story that refuses to go away. Jesus of Nazareth, a Jew from rural first-century Galilee, and Mohammed from Mecca are without doubt the most famous and most influential human beings who ever walked the face of the earth. Their influence may at present be declining in a few countries of Western Europe and parts of North America, as has from time to time transpired elsewhere.But the global fact is that the adherents of Jesus and Mohammed are more widespread and more numerous, and make up a greater part of the world's population, than at any time in history. Two billion people identify themselves as Christians; well over a billion Muslims revere Jesus as a prophet of God (Freedman 2001). Unnumbered others identify themselves as know and respect his memory as a wise and holy man. This work begins with tracing the lives of Jesus and Mohammed historically. Then it deals with different aspects of the practice and th e teaching of Jesus and Mohammed. How their messages are being carried out in the world today will be considered in the conclusion.The personality of Mohammed remains obscure in spite of his sayings and the many legends about him. There have been almost as many theories about the Prophet as there are biographers. According to tradition, he was born in A.D. 570, about five years after the death of Justinian, into a cadet branch of one of the leading families of Mecca. His father died before Mohammed was born, and his mother died when he was still a small child. First his grandfather, then an uncle, who was in the caravan trade, reared him.As a youth in the busy center of Mecca he probably learned to read and write enough to keep commercial accounts; he also heard Jewish and Christian teachers and early became interested in their religious ideas. Mohammed must have suffered, in these early years, from hardships, and he evidently became aware of the misery of many of his fellowmen. The se early experiences were later to be the basis of his fervent denunciations of social injustice. At the age of twenty-five, he married a wealthy widow and probably went on some long caravan trips, at least to Syria.This gave him further contacts with Jewish, Christian, and Persian religious teachers. At the age of forty, after spending much time in fasting and solitary meditation, he heard a voice calling him to proclaim the uniqueness and power of Allah. Mohammed seemingly did not, at first, conceive of himself as the conscious preacher of a new religion. It was only the opposition from those about him at Mecca that drove him on to set up a new religious community with distinctive doctrines and institutions. In 632 Mohammed died, the last of all the founders of great world religions.Little is known of the early life of Jesus Christ. Born a few years before the year 1 A. D. in Bethlehem of Judaea, he lived in Nazareth, a city of Galilee, until he was about thirty years of age. We h ave no reason to doubt the tradition that after the death of Joseph, the head of the family, Jesus became the main support of Mary and the younger children. He worked at his trade, that of a carpenter, and lived the life which would be expected of a religiously-minded young Hebrew.At about the age of thirty Jesus suddenly appeared at the Jordan, where John, a cousin of his, was performing the rite of baptism on those who came professing a desire to amend their ways and live better lives. Jesus also came and, against the scruples of John, who saw that Jesus was in different case from the others, was baptized. It marked a turning-point, for with the outward ritual act came an inner spiritual experience of profound significance for Jesus. A voice assured him that he was in a unique sense his Father's â€Å"beloved Son,† in whom he was â€Å"well pleased† (Borg 1997). It seems to have been the consummation of his thought and prayer and eager yearning for many years.He had received his revelation; he would proclaim God as a Father and men as his sons. He was filled with a sense of mission, of having a work to do and a message to deliver, which to the end of his life did not leave him for a moment. He went from place to place in Palestine preaching in the synagogues and out-of-door places wherever the people congregated, and talking to individuals and to groups as they came to him with their questions and problems. He began to gather about him a little company of disciples, which soon grew to twelve and which accompanied him on all his journeys.He spent much time in giving them instruction and on several occasions sent them out to heal and to preach. Jesus came to establish a kingdom, and this was the burden of his message. But he never forgot that the form of the Kingdom and many things connected with its coming were of lesser significance than the inner meaning and the principles on which it was based. The first of these was man's relationship with G od.Jesus was not only a teacher; he was a worker of miracles. The Gospels tell us that he cured the sick, opened the eyes of the blind, fed the hungry, stilled the storm, and even raised the dead. Much was made of these wonders by former generations of Christians, who used them as proofs of the divine character of the One who performed them. Such use of these incidents does not produce the effect it once did and is being discarded.A closer study of the attitude of Jesus toward his own miraculous power clearly indicates that he minimized its significance. He would have men secure a better perspective and realize that moral power was on a higher level than the ability to work marvels. With this in view it scarcely seems congruous to use the miracles in a way which could scarcely be acceptable to Jesus himself. But of all the impressions Jesus made the strongest was that he was in touch with God his Father and that this was the explanation of all the wonderful things about him.Jesus, h owever, was not only winning followers and bringing them close to God; he had come into collision with the religious authorities of his people, and in the end lost his life at their hands. They were formalists and as such had not averted the danger of losing sight of the vital principles of their religion. Jesus was an innovator, and felt free to act in accordance with the inner spirit of the old precepts even when by doing so he ran counter to the letter of the law.When Jesus appeared in Jerusalem at the feast of the Passover, He was seized and, after having had a preliminary hearing before the Jewish high priest and Sanhedrin, was taken before Pontius Pilate, the Roman procurator, and was condemned to death. He was crucified, together with two criminals, and died at the end of six hours' agony on the cross. His body was taken down by friends in the early evening and laid in a rock-hewn tomb. The hopes of his disciples were dashed to the ground, and undoubtedly the Jewish leaders a nd the Roman authorities thought they had rid themselves of an exceedingly troublesome creature (Allen 1998).But such was not to be, for a very remarkable thing happened the third day after. To the utter amazement of his disciples, who had not recovered from the paralyzing effect of their grief and disappointment, Jesus appeared to them so unmistakably that they were convinced that death had not been able to hold its victim and that Jesus was alive.Their new enthusiasm, the founding of the Christian Church on the assurance of the presence of the living Christ, the adoption of the first day of the week as a memorial of the day when Jesus reappeared alive -all these historic facts bear witness to the genuineness of the disciples' testimony that the same Jesus who had journeyed with them, who had died and had been laid away in the tomb, was raised from the dead, their living Master forevermore. They immediately went out to preach â€Å"the gospel of the resurrection,† and with t hat the history of the Christian Church was begun.Mohammed's teaching, from the beginning, shows strong Jewish and Christian influence. Mohammed learned the great stories of the Old Testament; especially was he impressed with the life of Abraham whom he later considered one of his own predecessors and who he claimed had founded the Ka' bah at Mecca. He, likewise, learned of the Christian Trinity whom he understood to be God the Father, Mary the Mother, and Jesus the Son.He was looking for common ground on which to found a faith for all monotheists. He had a profound respect for Jews and Christians, especially for the Jews, though when they refused to join him and when later they thwarted him, he attacked them fiercely. Mohammed took from Jewish, Christian, and also Persian teaching only what he wanted, and he combined all he borrowed in a set of ideas that always bore his own mark. In the Koran, for example, he uses the characters of the Bible as successful advocates in the past of the doctrines of Mohammed in the present. Mohammed called the Jews and the Christians the â€Å"People of the Book,† and he came to believe himself called to give his own people, the Arabs, a book.Soon after Mohammed's death in 632, a wave of conquest gathered in all of Arabia, Palestine, Syria, Egypt, and part of Persia. In less than a century all of North Africa, Spain, Asia Minor, and Central Asia to the Indus River were swept by the conquering armies of Islam. These conquests were as orderly as they were speedy; little damage seems to have been done, and immediately after the Arab armies entered an area they organized it. The Arab annexation, at first, meant little more than a change of rulers.Life and social institutions went on as before with little interference and no forced conversions; the conquered peoples could even keep their own religion by paying a tax. The Arab colonies planted in each new territory became the centers from which Islamic religious ideas spread a nd in which, at the same time, a new culture developed. Not until the new peoples, like the Seljuks, who were outside the Graeco-Roman tradition, were converted to Mohammedanism did Islam become fanatical. Indeed, no such militant intolerance as characterized the Christian attack on paganism was normally shown by the Mohammedans until into the eleventh century.The reasons for these fantastic conquests were various. To his own people, especially to the desert tribes, Mohammed offered war and booty, and to those who lived in the Arab towns he offered the extension of commerce. Caravans travelled in the midst of the Muslim armies. For those who died, Islam promised a glowing paradise. One drop of blood shed in battle, even a single night spent under arms would count for more than two months of prayer or fasting.Christianity and Islam have, like every other religion, developed their own mythology. These mythologies are at its height in the beautiful imagery that centers around the festi vals of Christmas, Easter and Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Adha (â€Å"Eid† or â€Å"Id† means festival). Indeed, there is today a rediscovery of the value of myth in human life. Today Christianity and Islam provide a good framework for the religious life. Some people, possibly lots of people, would claim that if Jesus and Mohammed were wrong, they can no longer be relevant. That claim can probably be disputed on theological grounds (Freedman 2001).The remarkable ‘footprint' of Jesus and Mohammed in history has strangely contradictory implications for an encounter with them today. On the one hand, it means that a true and adequate understanding of the men remains a vital task, even as third millennium has dawned. Just as in the first century Jesus was embraced as Saviour of the world by Jews and Gentiles excluded from religious and political power, so today he is welcomed above all by ordinary, poor and marginalised people – in the west and the east, and especia lly in the South. Like Paul, they see him, God's gospel, as having the power to liberate them from sin, their personal sins, the socio-political, cultural and structural sins of their nations, cultures and churches and the unjust economic and technological structures of the so-called ‘global village'.At least in the western world, it remains true that we can understand neither Christian faith nor much of the world around us if we do not come to terms with Jesus of Nazareth and the two millennia of engagement with his heritage. The followers of Jesus and Mohammed live in every country of the globe. They read and speak of these people in a thousand tongues. For them, the world's creation and destiny hold together in their gods, the wholly human and visible icon of the wholly transcendent and invisible God. Jesus and Mohammed animate their cultures, creeds and aspirations.ReferencesAllen, Charlotte. (1998).The human Christ: the search for the historical Jesus. Oxford: Lion.Borg, Marcus J., ed. (1997). Jesus at 2000. Boulder: Westview Press.Freedman, David Noel. (2001). The Rivers of Paradise: Moses, Buddha, Confucius, Jesus, and Muhammad as Religious Founders. Eerdmans: Grand Rapids, MI.